Astrophotography: Guide to Capturing Celestial Wonders

Are you eager to explore the world of astrophotography? Do you want to capture meteor showers, supermoons, or the beauty of the Milky Way across the night sky? This guide has everything you need to know about the basics of astrophotography.

First things first, for beginners in astrophotography, remember that planning, patience, and persistence are key. You might encounter obstacles like bad weather, unfortunate timing, equipment hiccups, or even natural events, which can be quite frustrating. But in the end, despite the challenges, when you finally capture that perfect shot, astrophotography becomes one of the most rewarding forms of photography.

What is Astrophotography?

a photo of a starry night sky with meteor shower on the Flat Tops wilderness area

Astrophotography is a magical genre of photography that allows you to explore the beauty of the starry night sky above. It involves photographing celestial objects, which can include the moon, stars, and planets, as well as nebulae and the Milky Way. It only requires a bit of training to get started.

Types of Astrophotography

a night landscape with a lit tree and the Milky Way

There are various types of astrophotography you can explore, such as:

Deep Space Astrophotography

Deep space astrophotography involves capturing images of objects beyond our solar system using a telescope. This type of astrophotography produces breathtaking pictures of distant galaxies and nebulae. It’s considered the most technical and challenging form of astrophotography. To excel in deep space astrophotography, you’ll need to tackle challenges like managing star trails, dealing with telescopes, addressing light pollution, and using specialized editing software.

Solar System Astrophotography

Solar system astrophotography focuses on imaging objects within our own solar system, such as planets, moons, and the sun. Typically, these images are taken through telescopes, but you can also achieve good results with a super-telephoto lens on a DSLR camera. It’s a more accessible form of astrophotography compared to deep space photography. You can capture the moon, the sun, and the planets that orbit our sun and achieve stunning results with the right equipment, including telephoto lenses.

Wide Field Astrophotography

Wide-field astrophotography is all about using a DSLR camera and a lens with a wide field of view, such as a wide-angle lens. This type of astrophotography captures stunning images that include a starry sky or star trails above a landscape. It’s a fantastic choice for beginners as it’s more accessible and less technically demanding.

Time-Lapse Astrophotography: Time-lapse astrophotography is an extension of wide-field astrophotography. The key difference is that you take numerous exposures over a period of time and then combine these frames to create a time-lapse video. This technique can also be used to create captivating star trail images.

Milky Way Astrophotography

Milky Way astrophotography often takes place in low-light pollution environments like deserts, making it a bit challenging for city dwellers. The good news is that you don’t need high-end gear; most decent DSLRs with a manual mode will suffice. In this case, the location matters far more than the equipment used. Capturing the beauty of our galaxy, the Milky Way is the primary goal here.

Equipment for Astrophotography

In the digital age, wide-field astrophotography is accessible to almost anyone. To get started, you’ll need:

  • A DSLR camera with excellent low-light capabilities
  • A fast lens
  • A sturdy tripod

Surprisingly, a tripod is one of the most crucial pieces of equipment for astrophotography. It provides stability, which is essential when you’re dealing with long exposure times of 10-30 seconds. A sturdy tripod ensures your camera stays perfectly still for those captivating shots of the night sky.

With these basic items, you can capture high-quality night sky images. Beyond this, you can enhance your kit with additional accessories like an intervalometer, which enables time-lapses and star trail photography. While there is a range of specialized equipment available, such as equatorial mounts and robotic camera mounts for panoramic shots, let’s focus on the essentials for now.

Choosing the Right Camera

The best camera for astrophotography is one with exceptional low-light performance. Ideally, go for a full-frame sensor camera like the Canon 5D MkII, MkIII, or the Canon 6D. Full-frame sensors capture more light, providing better image quality. However, if you’re on a budget, you can achieve reasonable results with crop sensor cameras like the Canon 7D.

Camera options for astrophotography vary, including DSLRs (full frame or crop), mirrorless systems, and even smartphones. Specialized astrophotography cameras are also available. Each camera type has its unique benefits, so consider using what you have before exploring other options. You can find more detailed guidance in this article.

CCD Imaging vs. DSLR: CCD (charge-coupled device) cameras are etched onto a silicon surface and are highly sensitive to light, making them excellent for astrophotography. They have advantages like the ability to capture longer exposures and better dynamic range. Some CCD cameras even come with built-in guide chips to assist in star tracking.

Choosing the Right Sensor Size: Deciding between a crop sensor and a full-frame sensor is a common consideration in astrophotography. A crop sensor magnifies the focal length of your lens, allowing you to get closer to your subject. However, full-frame sensors generally offer higher quality and lower digital noise. The choice between them depends on your specific needs and budget. This article provides a more in-depth analysis of the two systems to help you make an informed decision.

Choosing the Right Lens 

When capturing the beauty of the stars, opt for a lens with a large aperture. A maximum aperture of at least f/2.8 is ideal, but you can still achieve good results with an f/4.0 lens. Keep in mind that larger apertures generally come with higher costs.

Choosing the Best Telescope 

A telescope can offer a lot of benefits for astrophotography. Deciding between a telescope and a telephoto lens depends on your specific goals. A telescope is an extra piece of equipment that may require an additional investment. To make it worthwhile, you need to use it frequently. Borrowing one to see if it fits your astrophotography needs can be a good idea.

Telescopes are perfect for capturing deep-space subjects, and you’ll need an adapter to connect your camera. This also allows you to photograph the moon with your smartphone.

When choosing a telescope for astrophotography, consider a few key factors. One of the most important features is a motorized mount, which allows you to use longer exposures to capture the wonders of the night sky.

Additionally, think about the telescope’s focal length, aperture, and advanced features like WIFI connectivity and automatic alignment.

If you already own a crop sensor DSLR and a 300mm lens, the 1.6x magnification brings you to a 480mm focal length, which is similar to many telescopes. Some telescopes even operate at an f/6 aperture.

Tips for Capturing Images in Low Light Conditions

Keeping it steady

When it comes to astrophotography, you’ll be working with long exposure times, so stability is crucial to avoid camera movement and vibrations. Use a sturdy tripod to keep your camera steady.

To eliminate the slight camera movement caused by pressing the shutter button, consider using a shutter release cable or setting the camera’s self-timer to a short delay (e.g., two seconds).

Many DSLR cameras have a mirror lock function to prevent mirror-induced vibrations when taking a shot. The mirror locks up after the first press of the shutter button, allowing for a vibration-free second press to take the photo.

Finding your frame

Photographing in the dark presents challenges when framing your shot. Start by using your eyes to identify a region of the night sky and landscape that you believe will create a compelling composition. Then, align your camera in that general direction.

Expect to take test shots to fine-tune your composition, as framing in low light can be more challenging than in daylight. Be patient and allow time for adjustments.

Focusing Your Photos

Achieving precise focus is essential in astrophotography. Switch your camera to manual focus mode. Find the brightest star in your field or use the moon as a reference point.

Then, use your camera’s Live View mode. Increase the ISO and lower the aperture to maximize your chances of achieving sharp focus. Take your time to fine-tune the focus because post-processing cannot correct an out-of-focus shot.

Always shoot in RAW format instead of JPEG to have more flexibility in post-processing using software like Photoshop or Corel, which can significantly improve the quality and detail of your astrophotographs.

How to Plan for Astrophotography Shoots

Even with the best equipment, successful astrophotography hinges on careful planning.

1. Pick a good location

Urban environments can be challenging due to light pollution, so consider heading away from the city to a more secluded location. Use apps or services to find the best spots for astrophotography, or embark on an adventure to discover your ideal spot.

Remember that clear skies and a dark, unlit location are essential, but so are “seeing” conditions (minimal atmospheric turbulence) and “transparency” (low moisture and dust in the air, typically after rain).

Seek advice from experienced amateurs by joining your local astronomy club for valuable insights and guidance.

2. Know the night sky

Part of planning for astrophotography is knowing where the part of the sky you want to shoot is located. Remember that Earth is in constant motion, so the night sky changes throughout the year. So, it is important that you know where it is going to be visible when you’re heading to photograph it. Apps like Starwalk can help you track celestial positions.

3. Account for weather

Don’t forget to consider the weather in your plans. Unforeseen rain or cloud cover can disrupt your astrophotography session. There are many apps, such as Dark Skies, Accuweather, Photophills, and more, that can provide detailed weather forecasts to help you make informed decisions.

Preparations and Camera Settings for Successful Astrophotography


Here’s what you can do to prepare for your astrophotography session:

  • Practice focusing and tracker alignment during the daytime if you’re not familiar with these processes.
  • Find the infinity focus point on your lens by auto-focusing on a distant object using “live view” to magnify the image. Mark this point on your lens, then switch to manual focus.
  • Perform a polar alignment using the tracker’s built-in polar scope, ensuring the tripod is level.
  • Orientate the polar scope generally toward Polaris, the North Star. Smartphone apps like Astro-Physics PolarAlign and Polar Scope Align can guide you on Polaris’ position based on your latitude and time of night.
  • Securely lock the tracker’s position, then point your camera toward your chosen deep-sky object.

Besides practicing for your shoot, make sure what you’re going to wear for the session is appropriate for the weather. Don’t forget to bring more layers of clothing, in case it gets a little bit more chilly than expected.

Camera Settings

Like other types of photography, balancing aperture, ISO, and shutter speed for astrophotography. The white balance is an important consideration as well.

1. Shutter Speed

Shutter speed refers to the duration your camera’s shutter is open to allow light onto the sensor. In astrophotography, you’ll typically use longer shutter speeds because you’re capturing objects in the dark. However, long shutter speeds can result in star trails due to the Earth’s rotation, so you want to avoid them in wide-field astrophotography. The exact duration your shutter speed can stay open without star trails depends on your lens’s focal length.

To determine the maximum shutter speed before getting star trails, you can use the 600 rule. This rule states that you divide 600 by the true focal length of your lens. The true focal length is the lens’s focal length for full-frame cameras. If you’re using a camera with a smaller sensor, factor in the crop factor to get the true focal length.

For example, on a full-frame camera, if you have a 24mm lens, your maximum shutter speed would be 600 / 24mm = 25-second exposure. On a crop sensor camera with a 1.6x crop factor and the same lens, the calculation would be 600 / (24mm x 1.6) = 15.625 seconds.

For night sky astrophotography, start with a shutter speed of around 25 seconds to give stars ample time to appear in your photo. Keep in mind that your camera must remain perfectly still during the exposure to prevent motion blur. This is why a tripod is essential.

2. Aperture

Aperture refers to the diaphragm mechanism in your camera lens, which controls the amount of light that reaches the camera’s sensor by opening and closing, similar to the way your eye’s pupil functions.

Aperture settings are expressed as f-numbers. Aperture size also affects the depth of field in the image:

  • Wide aperture (e.g., f/1.4, f/2.8) results in a shallow depth of field.
  • Small aperture (e.g., f/9, f/16) creates a long depth of field.

In astrophotography, you typically shoot wide open, using the lens’s maximum aperture to allow as much light as possible to reach the sensor. Start with the widest aperture your lens offers, such as f/4.5 for a zoom lens or f/2.8 for a wide-angle lens. Shooting something brighter, like the moon, may require a smaller aperture, such as f/9, to capture surface details.

3. ISO

ISO, in digital photography, measures the sensitivity of your camera’s image sensor to light. A higher ISO value amplifies the sensor’s sensitivity, allowing it to capture more detail in low-light conditions.

High ISO settings are beneficial for astrophotography as they reveal details not visible to the naked eye. However, high ISO values can introduce noise (grain) to the image, which can be reduced in post-processing to some extent.

For night sky photography, you want a bright image, so you increase the ISO to make the sensor more sensitive to light. The choice of ISO varies based on your camera’s capabilities. High-end professional cameras can handle higher ISO values better, while cheaper cameras may struggle with noise. It’s a balance between maximizing sensitivity to capture details and minimizing noise to maintain image quality.

Consider using ISO 800 or higher for greater sensitivity to capture the night sky’s details. Experiment to find the highest ISO your camera can handle without introducing excessive noise.

4. White Balance

White balance settings can affect the color tones in your image. It can make your image appear warmer (yellows/oranges) or cooler (blues/purples), depending on the Kelvin value you choose.

In astrophotography, it’s essential to manually set the white balance, as the value can vary under different lighting conditions. While there’s no perfect white balance for Milky Way photos, it largely depends on your personal style and preference.

If you’re unsure, using the auto white balance (AWB) setting can be a good starting point. This allows your camera to automatically select the white balance using its algorithm, reducing the need to worry about it during shooting.

When shooting in RAW, you have more flexibility, and you can adjust the white balance in post-processing. However, for JPEGs, you must set the white balance manually. The ideal value for astrophotography may range from 3200k to 4800k, depending on the lighting conditions.

You’ll need to experiment with settings based on your specific conditions and equipment to achieve results that satisfy you.

Remember: Always shoot in RAW format instead of JPEG to have more flexibility in post-processing using software like Photoshop or Corel, which can significantly improve the quality and detail of your astrophotographs.

Tips on Composition

a photographer taking pictures of the night sky

1. The Rule of Thirds

The Rule of Thirds is a fundamental composition guideline. It involves breaking an image into thirds, both vertically and horizontally.

To create an aesthetically pleasing composition, place your point of interest at one of the intersections of these thirds. For example, you can position the Milky Way or a prominent star cluster at one of these points. This technique adds balance and interest to your photos.

2. Points of Interest

Every image should have a clear point of interest that grabs the viewer’s attention. Incorporate elements from the terrestrial landscape, such as trees, mountains, or other objects, to provide a sense of scale and add interest to the photo.

Silhouetting a tree against the night sky or capturing the Milky Way over a mountainous landscape can create compelling compositions.

3. Straight Horizon

Ensure that your horizon is level and straight unless you intentionally want to create a Dutch tilt effect. A straight horizon adds a sense of stability and balance to the composition, especially when there is a visible horizon in the shot.

4. Astrophotography Post-Processing

Post-processing is a crucial part of astrophotography, especially when shooting in RAW format. Use software like Photoshop, Lightroom, or Aperture to enhance your images. These tools offer significant control over the final result.

However, exercise caution when processing your images. Avoid over-processing, which can lead to unnatural-looking photos. Don’t crush the blacks or overly manipulate the image.

Processing is a personal and artistic choice. Study the techniques of professional astrophotographers as a starting point, and then develop your own unique style through experimentation. It plays a crucial role in astrophotography, helping you bring out the best in your images.


Astro photography is a captivating journey into the realm of celestial wonders. It offers an opportunity to explore the mysteries of the universe and to craft images that evoke a sense of wonder and awe. With persistence, practice, and preparation, you’ll be well-equipped to embark on your own celestial photographic adventure.